ESPIRIT: MONGOLS

E
  • Conquered lands would have to pay tribute to the Mongols. They were very heavy.
  • Encouraged trade among the Empire as a way to spread ideas
  • Free trade
  • Mongol economy depended on herding. Mongols weren't hunter-gatherers.
  • the conquering of lands created economic ties with nations that hadn't previously had them
  • fast paced nomadic lifestlye may have supported the idea of free trade, thus strengthening the economy
  • The Mongols depended on herding to move their economy until conquered lands helped expand long distance trade routes and free trade which would act as a modern day internet, creating a sense of global community.
*
S
  • people in conquered areas would either become slaves (or dead) or remain with the same social structures depending on whether they surrendered to the Mongol forces and payed tribute or not.
  • Genghis Khan had multiple wives
  • social structure was similar to Arab- tribal/clan structure
*
P
  • The Mongols were very similar to the Arabic nomads.
  • Separated into kinship clans that would periodically join forces to fight off threats.
  • Genghis Khan was named the supreme ruler of the Mongols due to his military power and the promises it made.
  • Karakorum was made the capital of the Empire
  • Foreign rulers were not replaced if they surrendered, they just had to pay tributes.
  • After the death of Genghis Khan, the Empire was split into four. Ogedei was grand khan though.
I
  • expanded their empire and strengthened their rule
  • revived some older kingdoms
  • caused Renaissance in Europe
  • established a revival
  • the conquering of lands created economic ties with nations that hadn't previously had them
R
  • The Mongols had no set religion
  • people allowed to practice any religion they wanted a long as they were loyal to the mongols
  • because the people were always on the move no religion was established
I
  • much knowledge integrated with knowledge from other conquered lands
  • this mix of knowledge allowed for the creation of new weapons and strategies
T
  • flaming arrows
  • exploding arrows
  • gunpowder
  • canons
  • catapults
  • battering rams
  • explosives

google doc done with Daniel Rendon
Rendon covered E,S, and P
I covered I,R,I,T


Notes: The Mongol Interlude in Chinese History

  • Kublai Khan- grandson of Genghis Khan- became Great Khan in 1260-led Mongol forces against the Song Empire
  • 1235-1279, Mongols battled and battled to expand the Mongol Empire
  • 1271 Yuan Dynasty was born
  • Kublai Khan sought to keep the Chinese out of the Khan culture- kept them from learning Mongol script, from the armies, and didn't want them to become friends with any Mongols
  • Kublai Khan was still interested in Chinese culture; surrounded himself with Confucian, Daoist, and Bhuddist scholars, introduced Chinese rituals to his court, made Chinese calendar the official calendar
  • Yuan Dynasty had a different social structure- Mongols, Asian nomads, and Muslim allies were on top- northern Chinese- ethnic Chinese and minorities from the South
  • Mongol women didn't bind their feet and had rights to land and control within the household
  • Chabi- wife of Kublai Khan- encourages Buddhist interests in the high levels of government
  • Kublai Khan had Muslims propose new system for tax collection
  • Kublai Khan refused to reinstate civil service exams to prevent scholar gentry class form ruling - Khan placed a high value on artisan classes- he appreciated the fact that they spread culture well- He eventually got the approval of the scholar gentry class because of his policies towards peasants with the reduction of their taxes
  • The Yuan Dynasty fell after Kublai Khans death because there wasn't a leader strong enough to succeed him
  • Muslim and Chinese rulers abused power in the absence of a strong leader
  • White Lotus Society was a religious sect that encouraged the overthrowing of the dynasty- claimed to have healing powers and told the lower classes to revolt
  • Timur-I Lang- Turkish ruler who created a small empire- never reached the success of the Mongol Empire- this empire became the last of the nomadic threats to sedentary nations- after his death, the empire split up