Not Quite the Middle East:
  • "Until the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Central Asian countries were usually studied as part of the Soviet bloc"
  • "Today, many maps include the countries Afghanistan, Pakistan and the Central Asian states of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan"
  • "there are also many dissimilarities in politics, language and culture between these countries and the Middle East."
  • countries such as Cyprus and Sudan are often assumed to be parts of the Middle East
  • these types of countries share international relationships and some societal and cultural similarities, but are very different from true middle eastern countries
  • people often confuse these countries for Muslim countries of the Middle East
Notes p 661-666 and 727-729
  • Lord Cromer- high commissioner of Egypt- pushed for economic reforms that reduced the debts of the khedival regimes
  • effendi- prosperous business and professional families that made up much of the new middle class of Egypt
  • Dinshawi incident 1906- confrontation between British and Egyptian subjects showed racial arrogance displayed by most European colonizers
  • Ataturk- emerged for the Turkish officer corps during the years of WWI
  • WWI- 1916- British and French have a secret agreement, Sykes Picot Agreement that when WWI was over they were going to divide the Middle East to benefit them;
  • as war continued British came up with Balfour Declaration 1917-promised lan to zionists and to Arabs; wanted US support and Arab support in order to defeat the Ottomans/Turks-
  • British lied;
  • war ended in 1918, Wilson's 14 points = hope for the Middle East; US never signed it and the British went through with the Sykes Picot Agreement;
  • 1919 Middle East = Mandates- grant of land by League of Nations (colonies?); 2 mandates controlled by Syria and Lebanon and the rest were controlled by the British
  • future wars- oil reliant; 1930s British and US began drilling in the Middle East
  • WWII- protecting oil supplies = key
  • Holocaust; 1948 Israel is created as its own state- on the day that it became a state, it was invaded by Egypt, Syria, TransJordan, Lebanon and Iraq
  • they saw Israel as a threat because it waa a Western state, not just a Jewish state; the enemy
  • by 1949 Israel was bigger than it was before

Notes 798-801,802-803:
MI: Attempts at political reform in Egypt showed itself as a difficult task to take on. National leaders often didn't follow the same rule as their predecessor in hopes that their new strategies would work. Revolution also proved to be something difficult to fully achieve.
  • Gamal Abdul Nasser- took power in Egypt in 1952 through a military coup; 
  • Free officers movement- radical movement that succeeded in gaining power; founded by idealistic young officers of Egyptian descent; the Revolutionary Command Council studied conditions in the country and prepared to seize power in the name of a genuine revolution
  • Muslim Brotherhood- free officers movement and revolutionary command council were loosely allied with them; they were another alternative to the khedival regime
  • Anwar Sadat-successor of Nasser- dismantled the massive state apparatus that had been created by Nasser; 
  • Hosni Mubarak- successor of Sadat; continued with Sadat's directional shift from Nasser's approach at running a nation
  • core motivations for the followers of both movements were provided by the emphasis on religious purification and the rejoining of of religion and politics
  • Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini- ruler of Iran; provided many fundamental challenges for his country


SUMMARY OF MIDDLE EAST:

The Middle East during the time of World War One and World War Two was a place where governments weren't stable, revolutions had been a common theme, and rulers were coming and going. During WWI the British and the French put together the Sykes Picot agreement. This agreement made it so the French and British would divide the weakened Middle East to benefit their own economic needs. This plan ultimately happened at the end of WWI. New governments were formed because new states were formed. The British and the French basically had control over the countries for their own oil needs. The Middle East was becoming a larger and larger source for oil, thus giving the British and French unsurmountable amounts of world power. The people living in these Middle East countries were obviously not too pleased with the French and the British. Nations like Egypt began to have revolutions. Ideas like Arab nationalism and Arab independence began to become a large role in society. Revolutions were held in attempts to somehow get out of Western regimes. In Egypt, after the revolution, their government came into power and Nasser became the president. One of his main goals was to reduce oil exports to the West. European nations were not too happy and started a joint attack on Egypt. In turn Nasser closed down the Suez Canal. Times were tough in the mid 1900s in the Middle East over land and power and stability in the world. Growing tensions eventually divided the borders of the Middle East into what is seen today, but all nations are independent from Western control.




Leader Analysis Sheet
Name of Leader: Nasser
Lifespan: 1918-1970
Title: President of Egypt
Country/region: Egypt
Years in Power: 1956-1970
Political, Social, & Economic Conditions Prior to Leaders Gaining Power:
  • Farouk I led before him
  • he was seen as corrupt
  • Egyptian Revolution took place
  • Farouk was removed from power after the revolution
Ideology, Motivation, Goals:
  • advocated for Arab independence
  • encouraged Arab nationalism
  • previously a military leader
Significant Actions & events During Term of Power:
  • redistributes land throughout Egypt and began plans to industrialize the nation
  • began building of the Aswan Dam
  • advocated for Arab independence
  • Nasser blocked the Suez Canal after joint attacks on Egypt
  • urged Arab nations to reduce oil exports to Western Europe
  • Egypt joined with Syria to form United Arab Republic;
  • Yemen joined and it became known as the United Arab States
Short-Term effects:
  • acknowledged the leader of the Arab world during his time in power
Long-Term Effects:
  • encouraged Arab nationalism
  • constructed the Aswan Dam
Leader Analysis Sheet
Name of Leader: Ruhollah Khomeini Ayahtollah
Lifespan: 1902-1989
Title:Supreme leader of Iran
Country/region: Iran
Years in Power: 1979-1989
Political, Social, & Economic Conditions Prior to Leaders Gaining Power:
*
Ideology, Motivation, Goals:
  • highly respected religious leader
  • opposed the Shah
Significant Actions & events During Term of Power:
  • harsh religious leader of Iran
Short-Term effects:
*
Long-Term Effects:
  • founder of the modern Islamic jihad
  • considered the founder of the modern Shiite state