ESPIRIT CHART: JAPAN

E-
  • Guilds were established among the classes; divided work and pay- everyone benefited
  • Daimyos introduced tax collection
  • "Silk, hemp, paper, dyes, and vegetable oils were major industries" - Kevin Chan
  • merchant class was key commerce
S-
  • Citizens stared at Buddhist temples and praised aristocrats
  • Peasants turned to Buddhist monks for answers and cures
  • Men and women followed certain behaviors to be considered aristocrats- polite behavior
  • Beauty and social status played a major role- everyone should be well mannered
  • Members of the Imperial household lived in complex palaces and gardens- sliding panels, wooden walkways, fish ponds, small lakes with waterfalls, gardens
  • Poems had a big role in society society- written on scented paper and painted fans
  • Aristocrat women were able to humiliate their lovers in front of their maidservants in poems
  • Lady Murasaki- The Tale of Genji- Poem about court life
  • Women were expected to be poised and cultured like men- they wrote poems- played instruments
  • Bushi administered law- Supervised projects- Collected revenue- Built their own armies
  • Samurai-protected the emperor- Loyal to local landlords
  • Seppuku-a warrior that when they lost in battle had to commit suicide to restore their family's honor-
  • Peasants would often revolt
  • Japan was moving out of a civilized life and into barbarism
  • Peasants produced silk, hemp, paper, dyes, and vegetable oil for household income
  • Women during the daimyo period could not own land or have an income; shift began focusing on men rather than women; were given into marriages as a way to strengthen alliances; if they dishonored their family they had to slay themselves; or they could be raped by enemy soldiers
  • In theaters, men replaced them; they were trained to impersonate women because they weren't allowed out of the house
P-
  • Taika reforms- Enforced by the emperor in 646 to reform Japan along China's guidelines- Dynastic histories were written after the emperors of China- Chinese protocols were combined with ancient Japanese politeness and decorum
  • The Japanese could not master Confucian ways
  • Japanese monarchs were trained to become like Chinese emperors- Eventually trying to become the "Son of Heaven"
  • Reforms were meant to build a professional bureaucracy and a strong army- Similar to the one in Han and Tang China
  • Changes were hard as aristocratic families and Buddhist monastic orders resisted
  • Buddhist monks were powerful-Aristocrats and the court had feared them- Tried to take the throne
  • Emperor Kammu- 794 he built the new capital Kyoto- forbade Buddhist monasteries to be built- Monks built monasteries in the hills
  • Monks broke Taika reforms-Restored aristocrats into power-Took positions in the central government
  • Local leaders had to build up the military
  • Fujiwara- An imperial family, got their families into the administration-One member had 4 daughters married to emperors; Used their power and money to build large estates; Was stable financially to build their power
  • Local lords and retainers lived inside their fortresses to protect themselves from attack
  • Lords had gained more power and eventually dominated the aristocrats- The aristocrat and courts power had fallen
  • Taira controlled the emperor and dominated the court
  • Minamoto- Were superior to the Taria- Established the bakufu; a military government that had more power than the emperor
  • shoguns- military leaders
  • Hojo- dominated the Kamakuras; Left the Minamoto shoguns in power
  • Ashikaga Takuaji- Led a revolt that overthrew the bushi- Established the Ashikaga Shogunate (1336-1573); The old emperor was exiled and forced to move into the mountain town of Yoshino
  • war had broken out from 1467-1477; Japan was divided into 300 little kingdoms; Each ruled by daimyos- War broke out often in the cities
I-
  • China played a key role in the development of Japan- adopted all their teachings- even Confucianism
  • Buddhism had spread; Allowed the Japanese to create gardens and influence; Meditation was important; A cultural mix
  • Trading with China was crucial for their economy as China had provided them with their major resources
  • Gempei Wars brought conflict and forced the peasants to suffer; Farmlands were destroyed
  • Japan adopted many of the political and religious aspects of the Chinese Dynasties
R-
  • Kami were natural spirits in Japan- changed once they began worshiping Buddhism
  • Buddhist teachings, shrines, and images became popular for pilgrimages and objects of veneration
  • Zen Buddhism was revived
I-
  • Zen Buddhism was revived; Renewed trade with China; Led to revival of Chinese influence in Japan
  • Japanese artists were brilliant and original; captured the natural beauties of Japan
  • Buddhism helped build gardens; tea ceremonies were held
  • Japanese scholars could not master Chinese characters- There was no resemblance to Japanese writing/language
T-
  • Daimyos supported construction projects such as irrigation systems, bridges, and castles
  • Drafted animals
  • soybeans
  • Golden and Silver Pavilions; Ashikaga shoguns had built it in Kyoto; helped meditations


Comparing Feudalisms Summary:

Feudalism in Western Europe and Japan were both influencing to institutions created in government to come in their regions. Both Western Europe and Japan had aristocratic kings or emperors who had power over the classes that owned the peasants. By maintaining the peasant class through the more upper classes, the monarchs had created a relatively relaxed lifestyle for themselves. The monarch had control over all classes and his orders and demands moved down the chain of social classes. Complaints moved in the opposite direction. Feudalism proved to be a stable system. Peasants acquired land through hard labor. Europe and Japan had strong militaries. Because feudalism was land based, war would often break out between rivals. However, in Europe, the warrior-landlord class had the most tension because European Feudalism had revolved around constant battle. Europeans fought wars in order for military leaders to prove themselves worthy. In Japan, warfare had led to internal problems among control of the samurai class. Infighting often broke out. Samurai were important in protecting landlords from danger. They needed protection to maintain efficiency on the farm. Without the samurai, the landlords were defenseless, and those with more samurai warriors were more likely to win in battle. Both Europe and Japan's feudal legacy may have led to the creation of the capitalist societies we see today.

Countries
Borrowed From China
Unique
Japan
· Bureaucratic system
· Confucianism
· “Son of Heaven” absolutist ruler
· Borrowed Chinese letters and simplified them
· Zen Buddhism- Buddhist Temples built
· Gardens and Palaces
· Personal relationships
· More social mobility
· Rank not determined by birth
· Economy was feudal based
· Samurai warrior class
· Shogun military leaders
· Bushi
· Seppuku
·
Korea
· Adoption of Chinese culture- Sinification
· Buddhism
· Alphabet
· Bureaucracy
· Tribute system
· Confucianism
· Buddhism was accepted over Confucianism
· Aristocrats were most powerful
·
Vietnam
· Bureaucracy
· Alphabet
· Architecture
· Didn’t want to be like China
· Vietnamese showed hatred towards Chinese control
· Women given more rights and freedom
Summary:
China greatly affected the ways that Japan, Korea, and Vietnam established their societies. All three nations established bureaucratic governments which show that Japan, Korea, and Vietnam wanted to gain as much political success as the Chinese had over the years. A strong political base is important in creating a successful economy and society. The Japanese seem to have adopted the most from the Chinese. Along with a bureaucratic government, Confucianism was also practiced. After the aristocrats began considering themselves and Confucian scholars, Buddhism became popular in the lower classes. Despite aspiring to be much like the Chinese, Japanese society allowed more social mobility. One’s rank in society wasn’t solely based on birth. Japanese economy was feudal based, like that of Western Europe in the Dark Ages. In Japan, Bushi, military warriors, established law and looked over public work projects. Samurai guarded feudal lords in attempt to keep peace amongst them. Korea basically adopted the same things the Japanese did including a bureaucracy, Confucianism, Buddhism, and the Chinese alphabet. In Korea, unlike China, Buddhism was accepted over Confucianism. The Vietnamese weren’t trying to adopt Chinese practices. The alphabet, architecture, and bureaucratic government somehow fit itself into the society though. In Vietnam, women were given more rights and freedoms.