1.) Treaty of Westphalia
  • Who?- Holy Roman Empire, Ferdinand III, Spain, France Sweden, Dutch, and sovereigns of imperial cities
  • What?- Started a new political order in Europe; made up of two Treaties which ended wars and started new political systems
  • When?- signed in 1648 (May and October)
  • Where?- their current German state
  • Why?- Ended Thirty Years War in the Holy Roman Empire and the Eighty Years War between Spain and the Dutch Republic in 1648; allowed rulers in the Holy Roman Empire to choose their own religion (Protestant or Catholic)

2.) Nationalism- loyalty to one's own nation/region
  • Unification of Italy- France attacked Austria in 1858 for control of northern Italian provinces; allowed Cavour to unite the Italians under the Piedmontese king; reduced the power of the Catholic Pope;
  • Unification of Germany- Bismarck in Prussia staged wars in the 1860s to expand Prussian power in Germany; 1866 Prussia was a supreme German power
  • Zionism- a national movement for a return of the Jewish people to their homeland in Israel (with sovereignty)
  • Brazilian Independence- Brazilians had gained their independence from Portugal through war and revolution
  • Monroe Doctrine- 1823 document stating that European powers do not belong in the Untied States.
  • Argentine Republic- the Argentinians had gained their independence from the Spanish through war and revolution
  • Balkan Nationalism- in the 19th century small Balkan nations gained independence from the Ottoman Empire; the Turkish power declined and nationalism rose; this nationalism threatened Austria

3.)Summarize the global impact of nationalism (limit to 200 words/ 1/2 page)

Nationalism is the idea and desire to be united with the people who share your language, culture, religion, and history with - essentially those living in the same country or province. We first start to see nationalism appear across the globe in the late 1700s and the early 1800s. The Atlantic Revolutions including the French, American, Haitian, and Venezuelan Revolutions were among the firsts to have happened. In these nations, the general public wanted to gain equal representation and freedom. These revolutions were based on the idea of nationalism, which united the nations to overthrow their own governments. The Atlantic Revolutions ultimately influenced the world to adopt nationalism, and with industrialization on the rise, the world was in for a big change. As a result of nationalism, nations became more unified and more willing to work with each other. With international relations moving forward, industrialization was just waiting to happen. Nationalism ultimately set the world down a path of much expansion and bigger production and trade. It did not only affect the nations who had revolts or rebellions, the whole world played a part in adopting nationalism. Though many good things came out of nationalism, in the end, it was a major cause in starting World War I.


4.) Years of Life Expectancy at Birth
Country
Year: 1820
Year: 1900
Britain
40
50
Average,rest of Western Europe
36
46
United States
39
47
Japan
34
44
Russia
28
32
Average, all Latin America
27
32
Average, all Asia
23
24
Average all Africa
23
24

  • Which of the data sets above do you think is the most significant? Why? The table above is the most significant to me because is shows the improvement of the life expectancy rates among individuals before the revolution and after the start of the revolution. Not one number went down from 1820 to 1900. It only comes to show that the Industrial Revolution made things better in the medical world. Everything started to advance when technology came into play during the 1800s.
  • Taken together what do these data sets tell us? All of the data tables show increasing numbers over the course of the Industrial Revolution. They show improvement in international relations involving trade and national production of goods and export. Iron working seems to have become a major role in most nations. Nations needed metal to build machinery, in order to produce goods to trade with the world.

5.)
  • What was the Industrial revolution? It was a change in production, transport, and communications within and between nations. It marked a period where technology expanded at a faster rate than it ever had in history.
  • What was its origins? Coal, steam, and iron began being used in textiles, railways, and steamboats. Electricity and petroleum soon caught on and it increased the mobility of the world. It created new jobs different than that of agriculture.
  • What were its major effects? Women started to get hired more, despite being exploited. Large industries began having an impact on everyday life. Big businesses began to take over the markets one category at a time. The Industrial Revolution changed the world forever. It started a fascination with technology that has yet to slow down. The rate of new technology keeps rising even today.


6.)
external image industrymap.gif
The effect of Industrialization on these factors of life.
  • Gender roles/issues- women became part of the workforce; feminist movements started around 1900 for equal rights for women; these movements gained popularity from middle-class women
  • Family Structures- women became part of the workforce; decline in religion due to leisurely activities; with less time spent at work, parents spent more time with their families doing leisurely activities
  • Social Structures- alongside the middle-class was the white-collar labor force; middle class being to start reforms in the workplace to create more time for leisure; we see an increase in the middle class
  • Extension of voting rights (chartist movement)- in the early 1900s women were granted the right to vote in the US; in the late 1800s black men were granted the right to vote in the US
  • Mass leisure culture- called for better wages and less hours; people had more time for themselves; motion pictures became super popular; sporting events became a form of entertainment; leisure caused a decrease in religion among most groups
  • Romanticism- artists went against traditional Western beliefs in art and literature; artists were creating abstract work and music was becoming less conventional with atonal scales
  • Socialism- a political movement that began in the early 1900s in western Europe; socialists fought against capitalist exploitation of the working masses; fought for state control of production and to create equality
  • Communism- the idea that everyone is equal under the government in all aspects of life; creates a classless and stateless society; prevents one from owning private property; everyone is given all the tools they need to survive

7.) Examine the map below and the data that follows - What do they show us?
british_empire.png
british_empire.png
Extent of Colonial Control





Great Britain
France
Belgium
Netherlands
Germany (1914)
Area in Square Miles
94,000
212,600
11,800
13,200
210,000
Population
45,500,100
42,000,000
8,300,000
8.500,000
67,500,000
Area of Colonies
13,100,000
4,300,000
940,000
790,000
1,100,000
Population of Colonies
470,000,000
65,000,000
13,000,000
66,000,000
13,000,000


SOURCE: Mary Evelyn Townsend, European Colonial Expansion Since 1871 (Chicago: J.P. Lippincott Company, 1941), p. 19


Percentage of Territories Belonging to the European/US Colonial Powers
(1900)

Percentage Controlled

Africa
90.4%
Polynesia
98.9%
Asia
56.5%
Australia
100.0%
Americas
27.2%

SOURCE: A. Supan, Die territoriale Entwicklung der Euroaischen Kolonien (Gotha, 1906), p. 254

These sources show us how much control European nations have on the world during the early 1900s. Had these sources come from before the independence of many northern and southern the percentages of land area controlled by Euopean would have been much higher. European powers were the strongest in the world during the early 1900s. The idea of imperialism and nationalism had spread over to the United States. The Industrial Revolution and Nationalism influenced each other to start the idea of Imperialism. Imperialist nations such as England, France, Germany, etc., began to take over other nations to liberate the peoples and to expand their own territory for their own benefit. Europe controlled a hefty chunk of the world by the early 1900s, which ultimately led to disagreement, thus starting World War I. Nations began to take over other nations that had more people in them and had larger areas. It just shows the power of Europe during the time and their desire to become the most powerful continent on Earth.

8.) Imperialism - the policy of extending a state's power or rule outside of its own borders

9.) Both nationalism and industrialization combined created the ideas that the power of the nation should be spread across the globe. Trade and production grew as industrialization started to take shape. And as nationalism grew, both nationalism and industrialization led to imperialism. National powers felt that they needed to spread their rule over new territories to expand their markets and help out the people. The idea that a nation should be unified on top of new technology and mass production, imperialism was the next logical step for the more powerful nations.

10.)

  • The British East India Company- joint-stock company; traded with East Indies, India, and China; eventually took control of India- was almost a complete monopoly; was given a charter in 1600;
  • Sepoys- Indian troops; made up the army of British India; all were subjected to European regimes
  • British Raj- British political establishment in India; made up much of the rivalry between the French and the British
  • Partition of Africa/ Berlin Conference- "Scramble for Africa;" 1884-1885; attempt to agree on the boundary lines for expansion in Africa; African states and tribes were not included in the conference; it was for the sole purpose of European expansion in Africa; the conference prevented war from breaking out over African lands; the Scramble for Africa led to diplomatic problems and was a factor in causing WWI
  • Settlement Colonies- regions where European nations established colonies to expand their world power; places where trade could expand and grow, as well as create military power
  • White Dominions- colonies where European settlers made up a majority of the population over the native peoples
  • Cecil Rhodes-British entrepreneur; South African politician; founded the diamond company De Beers which markets 40% of diamonds today; founded the state of Rhodesia- later divided and renamed Zimbabwe and Zambia;
  • James Cook- discovered Hawaii on a voyage; Hawaii was opened as a port; Cook convinced the Hawaiians that the British could help the nation unify by establishing trade with other nations


11.)

Country
How Britain gained control - steps to conquest
Actions taken by Britain when in control/ power
Effects/ Reactions
India (note this will be more notes than the following two nations.)
The British East Indian Trading Company was a commercial company. During their trading, British leaders thought it would be best to divide and rule the Indian provinces completely. The British were a more disciplined peoples and were able to capture India. The British had a much more powerful navy, which gave them an advantage importing and exporting goods. The Indians were too poor to pay for wars against Britain.
The British made their own Indian army made up of Sepoys. They all had to follow British command. The British had complete control of the East Indian Trading Company. The Company was responsible for administering and exploiting the expansion of the colony. British put in a civil service exam for those wanting a position in the government.
British put in a strong educational system in India to raise the level of scientific and technological knowledge. There was tension between the British and the Indians which led to the Sepoy Rebellion. Sepoys were not happy with the British regime and revolted, killing thousands of people.
South Africa
The British took Cape Colony in South Africa to keep it from falling to the French. They soon conquered more northern lands and much of Africa.
The British created a railway system stretching from South Africa to Egypt. Their system of rule was similar to the one they had in India. They brought new science and technology into Africa as well as creating a military from the native people.
The British involvement in Africa led to the unification of British African colonies. They were not as fragmented as before the British had taken power. The British had given the African states strength.
New Zealand
British arrived in the 1850s and wanted to claim the islands to extend their global power. The British fought the Maori and forced their way into power.
The British established law. British turned the internal administration of the islands over to the settlers' representatives. This gave the Maori a better chance to hold their own against the British.
Maori were not pleased with British arrival and were almost driven into extinction. The Maori ended up surviving British attack.


12.) Nationalism, industrialization, and imperialism were three big changes that took place during the 1800s and early 1900s. They were all connected to one another. Nationalism is the belief that one's region or state should be united and stick together. One who has pride in their country or believes their country is top would be a nationalist. Industrialization was the movement in science and technology during the same period of time. New machines were being built to make production of good more efficient. Industrialization made the world market skyrocket. Mass production of goods caused imports and exports to increase, causing a larger money flow. Imperialism is the belief that a nation's rule should be spread outside of its own borders. Nationalism and industrialization happened during the same time period. With both of these factors on the rise, imperialism was bound to happen. With nations getting a sense that they were better than other nations, and with the mass production of goods and a larger workplace, they started getting the idea of expansion. Powerful European nations began expanding to territories all across the globe. They sought to expand their armies, their rule, and their commercial goods. In a sense, if a nation had more land across the world, it was a more powerful nation all together. These three factors all influenced each other and changed the world into a more fast-paced one.