From Hunter-Gatherers to Civilization

1.) Define civilization.
A civilization is a group of people organized into a settled community. The people have shelter and means of obtaining food.

2.) ESPIRIT chart on early civilization



3.) Key Terms for Chapter 1


4.) ESPIRIT on Mesopotamia

5.) APPARTS Hammurabi

Summary Chapter 1: Key Points, Ideas and Takeaways
During the Neolithic Revolution, groups of people who were once lived nomadic lifestyles, began to settle into Mediterranean regions and discovered the power of agriculture.Chapter 1 describes the changes in the world from hunting and gathering to agriculture. Hunting and gathering was a normal part of a nomadic lifestyle, which was never stationary. When agriculture was discovered people began to settle. Civilizations began to develop. This caused an increase in the world population. Though some people resisted adopting agriculture, it eventually took over the world. With being settled into society, people began to invent new things. The Bronze Age began around 3000 BCE. The metal became useful tools in farming. Farming was a difficult process. The slash and burn technique was common, which was a technique where forests were burned down so farming could exist, then the farmers would move on to another region to farm after the soil became infertile.. Metal tools replaced the need for stone tools completely. These advancements in technology led to the invention of writing. The Sumerians of Mesopotamia were the first to develop cuneiform writing. The Phoenicians were the first to simplify writing. The development of early writing can be linked to Hammurabi’s Law Code. This code was a set of rules and punishments set by King Hammurabi around 1800 BCE in Babylon. This law is linked to law today because there are punishments for actions.- people who harmed or stole from people of the same social class had punishments equal to their actions- slaves who harmed or stole from people were given harsh punishments and had to pay money to those they hurt or stole from- a regular person who harmed or stole from a person of a higher rank was given a harsher punishment for their action and had to pay money- a middle class person who attacked a slave had to pay a little amount of money to the owner of the slave for their punishment. It is important to understand codes and laws like Hammurabi’s because it set a basis for what law turned into in the future.