ESPIRIT: Spanish Colonies
MI: Silver played a big role in expanding the economy of the Spanish colonies.
  • Encomienda- labor system where natives were the laborers
  • The Iberian peninsula had many slaves and had trans-Sahara trading routes- supplied the Americas with slaves
  • Slave trade took place at ports in Africa
  • Atlantic economy was created by immigration, commerce, and exploitation of native population
  • In 1493 Hispanola was established in Santo Domingo- led to new exploration and conquest- Puerto Rico and Cuba- expanded economy and trade
  • Caribbean agriculture allowed distribution of food to laborers- revived with slavery and sugar
  • In agrarian society- 80% of the people worked on land
  • Silver mining was highly valued-Produced most of the revenue
  • Huancavelica-mercury mining
  • Tight trading with America was established
  • Merchant guild called consulado- controlled goods shipped to America- controlled currency
  • Development of a wage system
MI: The establishment of labor systems was related to European social structures and was a defining even in society.
  • Spanish conquest destroyed native populations with diseases and the Encomienda system
  • Encomendero- someone who used natives to work their fields
  • Slavery, gold hunting, and diseases destroyed the natives
  • African slaves were imported in order to establish a labor force
  • Bartolome de Las Casas- conquistador turned priest-Tried to create justice
  • Laborers could be called by the government in order to work on state projects like roads, mining and agriculture; it caused many Indians to leave their villages and avoid labor and taxes
  • Adapted to Spanish legal system
  • Peasants lived in small towns and villages
  • Sociedad de castas
MI: Conquistadors ruled new Spanish territory.
  • Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile created a program of unification-it was used to eliminate religious and ethnic diversities of their kingdoms
  • Isabella ordered Jews to convert or leave- 200,000 people left
  • Spanish law allowed individuals to own their own mines-Everything else belonged to the king and queen
  • Laws were created which were based in Spain and American experience
  • Letrados- trained lawyers
  • Recopilacion-codified the laws
  • Council of Indies- issued laws and advised the king
  • Viceroyalties-Represented the king and high ranking nobles
  • Audiencias worked in the superior courts
MI: The search for wealth led to the expansion of economic ties.
  • Hernan Cortes led 600 men to the Coast of Mexico and attacked the Aztec Empire-with the help of Indians reached the capital of Tenochtitlan; captured the Aztec emperor Mocetzuma II and killed him; Mexico City replaced Tenochtitlan
  • Francisco Pizarro defeated the Inca
  • Francisco Vazquez de Coronado searched for cities of gold; went as far as current day Kansas
  • Franciscans, Dominicans, and Jesuits carried out conversion of Indians; established churches in towns and villages
  • Missionary churches were replaced by institutional structures like parishes and bishops
  • Archbishops were located in major capitals
  • Catholic church stimulated the works architects and artists
  • Published religious works
  • Schools were run by the clergy
  • Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz- poet, writer, social thinker, and musician;
  • Catholic church established social thinking and intellectual ideas; governed schools; wrote religious novels
  • Galleons- boats used to carry silver to the king/queen

Main Idea for Sepulveda's Argument: SEE DISCUSSION TAB

Las Casas Document

Comparative Summary: Sepúlveda vs. las Casas

Sepulveda and las Casa share two different points of view on the conquering of the Native American peoples. The only thing they agree on is the superiority of the Spanish race. Las Casas feels that the Spanish were superior to the Natives but he didn't feel that it was necessary for Sepulveda to conquer their territory and enslave their people. Sepulveda believed it was the right of the Spanish to show the people of the New World to religion and "civilize" them.

Notes on Barzilian Colonies

MI: In Brazil the Poturguese created the first plantation colony of the Americas, growing sugar with the use of the native American and then African slaves. The discovery of gold opened up the market.
  • Pedro Alvares Cabral- firdt leader of the Portuguese who landed in South America in 1500 while on nhis way to India
  • Captaincies- Portuguese lords that were given strips of land to rule

MI: The mixture of whites, Africans, and Indians