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Civilization/Nation/Group: Classical India

Time Period: _1000 BCE- 500 CEM

E
India's economy was based on agriculture and trade with foreign nationsCaste system-assigned to occupations and regulated marriages- low-caste people had few rights; Indian emphasis on trade was greater than in China; economy rivaled China; advances in steel, textiles, manufacturing, and ironworking put them ahead of China for a short time; they were more advanced that Europeans at that time period; traded by sea to the Middle East and East Asia; economy was agricultural based;
S
India's caste system emphasized men's and merchant's dominance; married womern had arranged marriages, few rights and had to worship their husbands; Chinese women had more rights; society divided up by caste- brahman(highest), merchants, and untouchables (lowest); untouchables had little contact with upper class- merchants were lower than peasants in China; merchants stimulated Indian economy
P
Politics in India were based on local and regional governments, which in turn, placed less emphasis on gevernment in India because there was a lack of centralized power; India's gov't was not elaborate, no formal political theories that carried over like China's dynasties; gov't established caste system that was interpreted by priests which promoted public order; Indian rulers depended heavily on power of large armies; there were aotucratic kings and emperors served as leaders, but in some cases aristocratic assemblies decided on major issues
I
India was the entrepot of civilizations at this time... classical era; China was isloated and only traded with middle east; both countries influenced by trading; traded textiles and cotton goods to all civilizations; India had control of seas and trade routes; china and India developed caravan trade by land; brought back new goods from other countries like slaves and pottery; spread culture through trade and not political dominance
R
Hinduism- no central holy figure; had many religious approaches;Vishnu the destroyer and Shiva the protector were some of the gods in Indian religion; Indians believed in reincarnation; Buddha was an Indian mystic; Buddhism- denied spiritual value of people; wasn't permanently followed in India; Buddhism focused on yoga and meditation
I
India had control of seas and trade routes; china and India developed caravan trade by land; politics were based on local and regional governments; no centralized government was needed; India basically controlled the trading world because China wasn't mainly focused economical trade
T
Classical India was more connected with the world than China making able to pull ahead; trading by sea was a technological advancement over China because China was isolated and India had the geographical advantage of being closer to trading countries and being a peninsula; sea trade really put India on the map
CLASSICAL INDIA SUMMARY

Classical India was very focused on trading. They often competed with China. Because Indians were more focused on trading than China, they were able to pull ahead. India traded by sea to the Middle East and East Asia. India's economy was purely based on agriculture and trade. The caste system in India showed the dominance of males. Women had few rights and their marriages were pre-arranged. They often had to worship their husbands. Brahman were the highest on the caste system scale: then merchants, and untouchables. The merchant class was very important to the Indian society and economy. Local and regional governments controlled India. This placed less emphasis on a less centralized government. There were no formal political theories or government standards. The caste system provided public order.Buddhism and Hinduism were the two widely accepted religions in India. Hinduism didn't have a central holy figure, but many different gods. Gurus were mystics of Hinduism and the were supported by Brahman. Two of Hinduism's most famous gods were Vishnu the preserver and Shiva the destroyer. Buddhism had Buddha as a god and took spirituality out of religion- focused on yoga and meditation. Buddhism believed in Dharma, which was a set of moral consequences which helped Ashoka to unite the people of India under his government. Ashoka was the governor of 2 Indian states. He was brutal and he spread Buddhism while still considering the values of Hinduism. The development of India came from the Aryans who were hunters and herders from Central Asia. They traveled to India and began using agriculture around 1500 BCE. They helped extend agriculture from from the Indus River to the Ganges Valley. It is safe to say that the Aryans helping in making India very successful in the agricultural and trading department. Finally, the Aryans developed sanskrit writing in India, which was the first literary language of India.

Terms for Classical India
Aryans
Traveled to India; hunting and herding peoples from central Asia; began using agriculture during the Vedic Age from 1500 BCE to 1000 BCE; helped extend agriculture from the Indus River to the Ganges valley; used iron tools; passed down Sanskrit- first literary language of the Indian culture
Ashoka
Chandragupta’s grandson (269 - 232 BCE); served as a governor of 2 Indian provinces; had a strong spiritual influence from Brahmin religion and Buddhism; he was a brutal leader who wanted to expand India’s territory; converted to Buddhismdharma- law of moral consequences; he spread Buddhism while honoring Hinduism
Gupta
Line of kings after collapse of Kushan state in 220 BCE; established a large empire in 320 BCE; empire overturned in 535 BCE by the Huns
Caste system
Political structure that divided the people into classes; Brahmin ( highest) merchants, untouchables (lowest); kept people in line and out of trouble; low-caste people had less rights; women had even lesser rights;caste.jpeg
Hinduism
Major religion in India; developed by the Aryans; had no single founder, no central holy figure; encouraged political and economic goals (artha) and worldly pleasures (karma); it was successful because the religion adapted to people’s needs; reincarnation was part of the religion; Vishu the preserver and Shiva the destroyer were worshiped; Bhagavad Gita was the religious book of Hinduism
Sanskrit
Developed by the Aryans; first literary language of Indian culture; they were literary epics known as Vedas- “knowledge”; Mahabharata and Ramayana were very popular epics; of Upanishads
Upanishads
epics with more mystical religious flavor; part of the Epic Age in Indian culture
Dharma
Set of moral consequences; ethical guide to help Ashoka unite and discipline the people under his rule;
dharma.jpeg
Buddhism
Hindu thinker who invented Buddhism; denied the spiritual value of the caste system, performance of rituals, and priests; attracted many followers in India; had much Brahman opposition;
Tamils
Indian language; one of the oldest existing languages today;
Chandragupta Maurya
322 BCE gained control of the Ganges River; first of the Mauryan dynasty; highly autocratic gov’t- relied on personal and military power; passed his power onto his son and became a religious ascetic
Gurus
Aka mystics; followed Hinduism and was supported by Brahman; Vishu the preserver and Shiva the destroyer were worshiped because they were the gods in Hinduism
Bhagavad Gita
Holy book of Hinduism; followed by Hindus and Brahman