Athens and Sparta organized rival alliances in the 400's B.C. The Delian Leaague included Athens and other city-states on the Aegean coast and on islands in the Aegean Sea. The Peloponnesian League, led by Sparta, included most of the Peloponnesus peninsula and Macedonia. The rivalry between the two city-states erupted in the Peloponnesian War, which Sparta won.
)Primary Source Analysis
Document: Thucydides on Athens 5th c. BCE
Author– Who created this? What do we know about the author? What might influence their opinions?
Pericles- 495- 429 BCE;
war general- might influence opinions to favor war
Thucydides- war general- ^
Place – Where and when was it created -
Athens, Greece- 431-430 BCE- winter
Prior Knowledge
What do we know about where this was created? What have we learned about this topic? Society that may be relevant?
Athens is in Greece; Ancient
Greece was a very powerful and influential nationwith a rich polytheistic religion- we know it today as Mythology;

Alexander the Great once ruled Greece and conquered much of the Middle Eastern world
Who is the intended audience? How might they receive this? – quotes to support your claims?
Pericles is talking to those in favor of war and expanding the borders of the
empire of Athens
If we turn to our military policy, there also we differ from our antagonists. We throw open our city to the world, and never pass laws to exclude foreigners from any opportunity of learning or observing, although the eyes of the enemy may occasionally profit from our liberality”-talking to those who also sympathize for the dead; wants to inspire people to fight
Reason for Creation
What is the purpose of this document? Read between the lines, support claims with a quote
He wants to continue to fight- “
You, their survivors, must be determined to have as unfaltering a resolution in the field, though you may pray that it may have a happier outcome”
- Pericles is focused on making Greece the most powerful nation on the Earth
"keep people on his side to want to continue fighitng"- Daniel Rendon
The Main Idea
Support with quotes
Pericles gave a funeral oration to sympathize for those who died in battle, but also wanted to inspire those who fought, to continue to want to fight for their country.
You must yourselves realize the power of Athens, and feed your eyes upon her from day to day, till the love of her fills your hearts; and then when all her greatness shall break upon you, you must reflect that it was by courage, sense of duty, and a keen feeling of honor in action that men were enabled to win all this,”
How does this relate to the big picture? What can it tell us as historians? Relate to ESPIRIT if possible
The will to fight seems like a theme in Ancient Greek history because there were rulers who wanted to expand the borders and become the most powerful nation to ever exist. Alexander the Great, ruler of Greece, felt that making the nation bigger would strengthen it. If power is a theme in Ancient Greek history, one can relate power to most other nations. Nations wasn’t power and want to be in control.
"Had developed a democracy"- Daniel Rendon

Was this speech written by Thucydides or Pericles?
Pericles. Tucydides had nothing to do with the document. The title was very misleading.
all quotes taken from,11868,3126167-content,00.html

Primary Source Analysis

Document: Plutarch on Life in Sparta 1st c. BCE
Author– Who created this? What do we know about the author? What might influence their opinions?
Plutarch- Greek historian- born 45 CE- traveled the Mediterranean- maybe by seeing most of the world, he sees how other civilizations act and that may affect his opinion of his own country- Sparta- Greece
Place – Where and when was it created -
Post 45 CE- Corinth
Prior Knowledge
What do we know about where this was created? What have we learned about this topic? Society that may be relevant?
Athens is in Greece; Ancient- "Sparta was a military state- Tyranny ruled- Greece broken up into city-states"- Matt Weldai
Greece was a very powerful and influential nationwith a rich polytheistic religion- we know it today as Mythology;
Alexander the Great once ruled Greece and conquered much of the Middle Eastern world
Who is the intended audience? How might they receive this? – quotes to support your claims?
Because Plutarch is a historian and writer, his audience might be educated peoples or scholars of some sorts; he seems like he is for the ruling of Lycurgus- maybe those supporting him are the audience
Determined, therefore, to banish insolence and envy and crime and luxury, and those yet more deep-seated and afflictive diseases of the state, poverty and wealth, he persuaded his fellow-citizens to make one parcel of all their territory and divide it up anew, and to live with one another on a basis of entire uniformity and equality in the means of subsistence, seeking preeminence through virtue alone, assured that there was no other difference or inequality between man and man than that which was established by blame for base actions and praise for good ones.”
Reason for Creation
What is the purpose of this document? Read between the lines, support claims with a quote
It seems like Plutarch is explaining what Lycurgus is trying to do to help the people of Sparta; some of
his strategies are not helping and in fact making things worse for the people
Next, he undertook to divide up their movable property also, in order that every vestige of unevenness and inequality might be removed....In the first place, he withdrew all gold and silver money from currency, and ordained the use of iron money only.”
The Main Idea
Support with quotes
Plutarch is giving an overview of what the king of Sparta, Lycurgus, is doing to create a better society in his own point of view.
Lycurgus, though wanting to help, was a brutal and drastic leader, leaving no questions to be asked about his style of leading.
In the next place, he banished the unnecessary and superfluous arts. And even without such banishment most of them would have departed with the old coinage, since there was no sale for their products. For the iron money could not be carried into the rest of Greece, nor had it any value there, but was rather held in ridicule”
How does this relate to the big picture? What can it tell us as historians? Relate to ESPIRIT if possible
Between ca. 800-600 B.C.E., the Spartan "lawgiver," Lycurgus, is credited with establishing what amounted to a military state in Sparta.”In Sparta the people did not have a choice as to what they wanted to do with their lives. The men were trained into soldiers and the women were meant to have the children of the soldiers. The people were powerless under Lycurgus.
Questions? Was Lycurgus a good leader or bad leader, according to the people of Greece, or Plutarch?

all quotes taken from,11868,3126098-content,00.html

Athens and Sparta Comparison

Athens had a developed system of democracy
. In Athens the government was made up of archons who were elected annually.
In Sparta the government was an oligarchy
where few rich men and their families ruled, which is type of tyrannical type of government. The Athenian government proved to be not the best form of government at that time because only 10% of the population had voting rights (women couldn't vote), thus altering the decision of who the archons would be because the percentage of the population that could vote were all upper-class men. Though the government may not have been great, life in Athens had much opportunity for success. Boys were able to pursue education, business, or arts (women didn't have any freedom), while in Sparta, young boys were trained to become warriors at age 7 becausethe army was the most important thing in Sparta, and women to be the mothers of warriors. Athenians had the choice to enter the army or navy based on their social status. The two nations clashed because of their opposite opinions on how the government and society should be in their cit-state. During the Persian War, though not friendly nations, Athens and Greece fought together to stop Persian invasions in Sparta.
ThePeloponnesian War began because Athens wanted to expand their territory and ave control over other Greek nations. Sparta won the war, but let Athenian culture continue to live as long they didn't try to take over other Greek city-states.


Notes on Ancient Greece:
508 BCE, small town of Athens revolted against government. Cleisthenes led people to democracy.
Life expectancy was 15 years in ancient Greece.
Greece divided into city-states, over 1000- never unified, sought to maintain their own independence.
Spartans were raised to be warriors, lives centered on war. Spartans declared war once a year on Helots to show dominance.
Myths were popular, travelers memorized millions of lines of poetry because they couldn’t read or write. The Iliad and the Odyssey are the most popular tales.
Pisistratus made agriculture popular in Athens. Made Athens ready to trade with entire Mediterranean. Athenian olive oil popular- economy on the rise.
Pisistratus’ son took over after his death- Hippias- tyrant-unfair and brutal.
510 BCE, Cleisthenes set out to Hippias- successful- became one of the most powerful leaders in Athens
Olympic Games founded in 776 BCE in Olympia, Greece
The development of Athens was based on the geographic advantages, democratic form of government, and the glorification of local heroes.

You must include main ideas and details in each category

Civilization/Nation/Group: Ancient Roman PoliticsTime Period:

The economy of Rome was based heavily on commercial agriculture, trade and slavery

grain was a popular staple; grapes were grown to produce wine- and olives were grown for trade;
olives and grapes were important to the trading economy

landlords forced farmers to become tenant farmers- Roman republic declined b/c farmers relied on landlords too much- led to control of aristocrats

rise of agriculture helped establish Rome as an empire;

farming was connected to trade- Rome traded w/ Mediterranean, India, and East Asia;

slavery was key in the economy; without slaves, goods would have been more expensive because there would have been no free labor system
The social structure of Rome on ones amount of property and which class they were born into.

- many Romans were farmers; merchants had a high status in Rome- social class right under patricians;

- social classes - senatorial class- equestrians- slaves

- women weren't counted as citizens because they were forced to stay at home- didn't have many rights

- different classes avoided each other usually

-farmers had their own communities under the rule of aristocrats
Roman government established the first representative democracy

- Romans voted for aristocrats to make up the Senate

-Senate appointed a dictator in times of crisis and then would stop ruling when crisis was over

-2 consuls shared the executive power

- 3 branches of government- executive- legislative- judicial; created a balance in government

-some political writing resembled Confucianism- but more focused on the actions of executive officers

- Roman gov't was religiously tolerant and supported the military

-Twelve Tables- law code introduced in 450 BCE- to restrain upper class poeple from arbitrary action and to some legal principles

- gov'ts supported official religion and ceremonies to celebrate the gods and goddesses
Rome had developed an empire based on foreign trade and expansion of territory by the military.


-commercial trade with Mediterranean, India, and East Asia

sold grain, wine, olives

- bought luxury items from China and India;
Roman religion was polytheistic and people often performed rituals and sacrifices to please the gods.


- priests existed to supervise the religion

-Aristotle suggested there must be a balance in human nature

-Stoics- set of beliefs and ideals created in the 300s BCE; believed in moral independence- beliefs were later related to religions like Christianity
Romans adopted many things like art, poetry, and philosophy from the Ancient Greeks

Aristotle- gave evidence as to why slavery is important for an economy to flourish

Roman mythology can be linked Greek mythology because they are basically the same gods and myths with different names.

Plato suggested human reason could approach 3 perfect forms - true, good, and beautiful- they all characterized nature
The technological advancements in the Roman Empire were far beyond the inventions of their time period

Aqueducts- system of plumbing- very advanced technology for their time period- carried water throughout Rome

Advanced system of roads - "all roads lead to Rome"

catapults, siege engines- War machines

magnifying glass

aqueducts.jpeg <-- Aqueducts

Key Terms: Greece and Rome

Olympic Games- Greek city-states gathered every four years in an athletic competition; Sparta and Athens were the two rivaling city-states; brought fame to the person that one the games; important because Greeks saw heroes as an important part of society and culture; games established in Olympia, Greece in 776 BCE

Peloponnesian War- 431 - 404 BCE; Greece divided into allies of Athens, allies of Sparta, and neutral states; fighting b/t Athens and Sparta over power in Greece; Sparta won the war and kept Athens from extending their borders any further; Sparta won the war from being a completely militaristic society

Direct Democracy- established in Athens in 5th century BCE;
assemblies of citizens met every 10 days on public decisions
; executive officers chosen and reviewed by the assembly- served short terms; though few Athenians were citizens, this was still the first known and practiced democracy in the world;

Roman Gov't- made up the Senate- mainly aristocrats who held all executive positions in office; 2 consuls shared primary executive power; in times of emergency, senate could chose a temporary dictator to rule until the crisis is solved; city-states were different in Rome than Greece because local freedom was accepted in many regions;
government was focused on military conquest;
Cicero was a member of the Roman senate
- he was a Roman writer- some political writing resembled that of Confucianism- but focused less on hierarchy of power and more on a legislative assembly to make laws
- writers talked about and debated the political structure and ideals of the government

Aristotle- Greek philosopher 384-322 BCE; student of Plato; he stressed the balance and moderation in human behavior rather than focusing so much on politics; Hellenistic Period was a popular time for creation of ethical systems

Stoics- founded by Zeno of Citium in 300s BCE- emphasized inner moral independence; these ideas were mixed with Christianity in later times- but these ideas weren't religious ideas because
there wasn't an established religion on Greece or Rome

Socrates- born 469 BCE- questioned conventional wisdom; he sought to improve the souls of the people; trained Plato

Plato- pupil of Socrates- suggested human reason could reach 3 perfect forms- True, Good, and Beautiful- which made up nature- this idea suppressed the importance if human spirituality- similar to Confucianism

Summary of Greece and Rome
The geographic locations of these two empires were directly in the center of the Mediterranean, which was the world’s center of trade. Being so close to each other, Rome, whose empire developed after Rome, shared many of the same political and cultural beliefs. Intellectuals like Plato, Aristotle, and Socrates discovered beliefs that lessened the importance of human spirituality, like that of Confucianism, because there was no established religion in either empire. Both the governments of Greece and Rome were forms of democracy. In Greece, democracy was first developed as an assembly of Athenian citizens to decide on public decisions. In Rome, the gov’t didn’t adopt much from that of Greece’s. Their gov’t was made up of an aristocratic senate and two elected consuls- oligarchy. Cicero was a part of the senate, often debating with other senators about the structure of the gov’t and supporting a legislative assembly. Roman government was very militaristic and often focused on the conquering of bordering nations to expand the borders of Rome.
The economies of Greece and Rome flourished greatly. In both empires, slavery was a key component in the successfulness of the economy because it was a system of free labor. Grain, grapes, and olives were big in Roman trading. Both Greece and Rome were connected to the rest of the world through trading and buying goods. Both nations traded throughout the Mediterranean into East Asia and India. Luxury goods were often bought from those countries because their raw materials differed because of their geographic locations.
Though there was no established religion, Greeks and Romans believed in gods. Not many sacrifices or religious ceremonies were held for the gods, but the stories, or myths, they heard about them were believed by the public. The myths explained how the world was created and how the gods live. Romans adopted the same set of gods from the Greeks after the fall of the Greek Empire. As far as technological developments go, the Romans developed a system of aqueducts to transport water in and out of the city. This technology was very advanced for this time period. The Romans also develops war machines like the catapult and items like the magnifying glass.
Greece and Rome are two very alike empires because they follow most of the same beliefs in culture and society, but they are different in their forms of government and willingness to expand their borders abroad.
ESPIRIT comparing Rome and China