Leader Analysis Sheet

Name of Leader: Shi Huangdi
Lifespan: 259-210 BCE
Title: Qin Shi Huangdi
Country/region: China
Years in Power: 36
Political, Social, & Economic Conditions Prior to Leaders Gaining Power
- After Zhou downfall, regional rulers formed independent armies to reduce the emperors
- 402-201 BCE- Era of the Warring States
- Zhou system gone
- Shi Huangdi started the Qin dynasty
Ideology, Motivation, Goals:
- Brutal leader- successful leader
- Knew Chinas problems were in the regional power of the aristocrats
- Wanted to get rid of this force
Significant Actions & events During Term of Power:
- United China
-started the building of the Great wall of China
- established a measuring and weight system
- successful silk farmer
Short-Term effects:
Started the Qin dynasty
Long-Term Effects:
China stayed united after his death; Classical Chinese history lost because he burned all of the historical books; Built the Great Wall of China

Daoism- The Classic of the Way and Virtue (500s – 400s BCE)

- created by scholar Lao Zi
o wanted to help China in a different way the Confucius
o Retreat into seclusion and embrace the harmony of nature.
o Daoism suggests a lesser role for the gov’t and more freedom for the people
The Way
- The Dao that can be trodden is not the enduring and unchanging Dao. The name that can be named is not the enduring and unchanging name.

Conceived of as having no name, it is the Originator of heaven and earth; conceived of as having a name, it is the Mother of all things.”

- the Dao produces and nourishes all things: its does all, but does not boast of it
- “Man takes his law from the Earth; the Earth takes its law from Heaven; Heaven takes its law from the Dao. The law of the Dao is its being what it is.”
The Wise Person
- “ When we renounce learning we have no troubles”
- A person becomes a good person by following Daoism, one does not boast or offend others and everybody is equal
- Daoism is almost like Karma, if one becomes rich and arrogant, bad things will happen, basically it one becomes a bad person of does a bad thing, they will have something bad happen to them, one won’t go to Heaven
The Ideal Government
- a state can have a gov’t and an army, but people are free
- the leader will not involve themselves in the lives of the people and will not take away any of their rights
- they have no power over the people

Daoism is the best option after the Era of Warring States because the people of China are free to do what they want without any government bringing them down. Daoism is loosely related to Karma, so the people who do not act well will have bad things happen to them or they will not go to Heaven. Daoism allows people to become rich and do what they dream of doing. The Dao is the one who creates all things. The Dao is above God.Daoism is the belief that everything exists because of its opposite. yin and yang

You must include main ideas and details in each category

Civilization/Nation/Group: Han China_

Time Period: 202 BCE- 220 CE

* Peace in China brought prosperity; gov’t became wealthy; Silk Road brought wealth to the government because silk trade boomed
  • salt and iron enterprises were owned by wealthy merchants and regional kings; they employed thousands of peasants which caused a loss in agricultural tax revenue in the government; Wu Ti nationalized the companies in 117 BCE to help create more revenue in the government
  • farmers and merchants paid poll and land taxes with cash and part of their crop product

Expanded borders made contact w/ India and Parthian Empire in Middle East; China had tight-knit patriarchal families;* majority of people living in Han China lived in extended urban and suburban city areas outside city walls
  • major crop staples in Han China were rice, wheat, and beans
  • people wore hemp clothes because silk was too expensive to buy; women usually made clothes for their families
Had the same centralized gov’t as Qin dynasty but wanted to reduce brutality; Han Dynasty had successful gov’t before collapse; by end of Han dynasty, gov’t had 130,000 bureaucrats representing .02% of population; bureaucracy was a less centralized form of government- there wasn't just one powerful leader controlling the government; china was more focused on trying to fix the government than expanding trade
Ideals/ Goals
Gov’t wanted to reduce brutality; Han expanded China’s borders near India and middle east; Wu Ti (140-87 BCE) leader of China enforced peace through Asia* Wu ti launched military campaigns against the Xiongnu who beat Han in a battle in 200 BCE; it expanded Han sovereignty to central Asia
  • this helped develop the Silk Road
Wu Ti supported Confucianism; shrines made for Confucius represented as a god; Confucianism was a way of thinking that got people more in touch with their spiritual sides, it didn't support any kind of centralized government, supported idea of patriarchal families
* Trade w/ middle east, India and Roman empire in Mediterranean; Silk Road- production and trade of silk
  • Sima Qian wrote Shiji, which were the historical records during Wu Ti's reign
  • the book described the people who live on the Han's borders as barbaric
  • this book set a standard for record-keeping in future governments

improved the plow to help in agriculture; copper coinage
  • currencies were introduced to collect government revenues; tin-silver alloy coinage was also introduced
  • along with the copper coinage

Economics of Han China

Classical China Terms
Shi Huangdi
First leader of the Qin dynasty 240s BCE- 210 BCE; brutal leader; began construction of the Great Wall; successful silk farmer- paved the way for the Han dynasty to expand the Silk Road; he ordered a national census in order to tax the people- this developed a of weights and balances; shi_huangdi.jpeg
Followed the Zhou dynasty 221 BCE- 202; 2rd dynasty stressed central authority; sought to expand borders of China; some followed legalism
Dynasty 202BCE- 200 CE. Followed the Qin; kept many ideals and goals of the Qin; wanted to expand the borders; continued to tax the ; expanded Silk Road; but the Han was focused more on a bureaucratic government; and Daoism was more practiced Han.jpeg 
Chinese dynasty 1029 BCE- 258BCE; prior to the Era of Warring States; did not establish a powerful government; regional government and families dominated; d
eveloped the land known as the Middle Kingdom;

Great Wall
Started by Shi Huangdi; one of the largest constructions in human history; built by forced labor; meant to kept attackers out Chinese territory
Based on the balance of the yin and the yang; everything exists because of its opposite; the Dao is everything; gov’t exist because of the bad people; Daoism.jpeg

Confucius – scholar of late Zhou era; over time his philosophy was the foundation for a whole civilization; Confucianism established norms for all aspects of life; stresses respect for elders- male authority in households; the beliefs were very laid back and focused on a spiritual side of a person; didn’t strongly believe in a powerful leader or government 
Rejected Confucianist thoughts by respecting a powerful leader; human nature was evil and needed to be put in line; never got accepted like Confucianism; Confucius.jpeg
Division of the government; many bureaucrats appointed in Han dynasty; form of less centralized gov’t;
Chapter Summary:

Classical China was made of a set of dynasties. The dynasties were led by a ruler who controlled the government. The Zhou dynasty lasted from 1029 BCE to 258 BCE. This dynasty did not have a powerfu form of government. Regional princes and noble families were the "governments." Zhou leaders encouraged people to settle near the Yangtze River in the Middle Kingdom. This expansion of territory followed into the next few dynasties.During the Zhou dynasty, Confucianism was a widely accepted way of thinking. No one believed in a centralized form of government. 402 BCE and 201 BCE was know as the Era of Warring States. Shi Huangdi was a regional ruler who took over the government. This started the Qin dynasty. Huangdi contributed to the building of the Great Wall of China to keep invaders out of the empire. He established a system of taxes and weights that was carried on into the next dynasty. Huangdi was a brutal leader who wanted to expand the borders of China. He was a successful silk farmer and paved the was for the Silk Road to be formed. During the Qin dynasty, a way of thought known as legalism became popular. It was the believe that people needed a powerful leader to keep the people in line because they were evil. After Huangdi's 36 year reign of power, the Han dynasty began in 202 BCE. It lasted until about 210 CE. Many ideals were carried over from the Qin, like expanding the nation's borders and taxing the people. Daoism became the new way of thinking. Daoism is the belief that everything exists because its opposite exists (yin and yang). The silk road became the source of. A series of trade routes began because silk became internationally popular. The Chinese traded with the people of the Middle East, who then spread it to the rest of the known world. The government during the Han dynasty was known as a bureaucracy, or a form of less centralized government. Many people made up the government in order to try and meet the needs of the people. In Classical China, families were patriarchal and women weren't given too many rights.