Notes: 593-604

Ottoman Retreat and the Birth of Turkey
Western Intrusions and Crisis: Egypt
  • 1683 the Turks almost captured Vienna, Austria
  • Over the next 30 years the Turks lost Hungary and Transylvania
  • The Treaties of Karlowitz (1699) and Passarowitz (1718) weakened the Turks in Europe
  • They lost more territory with conflicts between Russia during the reign of Peter and Catherine
  • Jannissaries began moving backward in progress to expand the empire- they refused to adapt new technologies and tactics
  • Sultans in the 1800s began to progress forward in politics, the economy, and the military
  • they secularized against protests of the Islamic clergy
  • 1839-1876 the Tanzimat reforms empahsized greater religious tolerance for non Muslims living in the Ottoman Empire
  • Nationalism combined with the Napoleanic Wars led uprisings in the Turkish states
  • The Greek War of Independence in 1821 caused the Greeks to separate from the empire in 1832
  • A group of pro-Western army officers began to form- they were called the Young Turks- they didn't like the sultans failures to strengthen the Ottoman Empire
  • They tried to reform it themselves by aligning with Germany
  • but they couldn't save the empire- between 1911 an 1913 the Italians seized the Ottomans last provinces in North Africa and the Ottomans were defeated in the two Balkan wars
  • The empire was replaced by the Turkish state, Turkey, after WWI
  • Egypt fell out of Ottoman rule and was brought into European influence
  • Muhammad Ali's grandson Ismail, a reformer, decided to build a canal across the Suez land bridge that linked the Mediterranean and the Red Sea
  • the building of the Canal led to European domination- the canal revolutionized modern shipping
  • thousands of Egyptians died during construction
  • in 1875 Britain bought all of Egypt's shares which caused them to interfere in local politics
  • 1881 Egyptian military revolted against the khedive
  • Britain assumed power in the government even though the khedive controlled the state


This map shows the Ottoman Empire and its losses throughout its decline during the Industrial Era.
This map shows the Ottoman Empire and its losses throughout its decline during the Industrial Era.




The Decline of the Qing Empire
MI: Internal struggle on top of weak rulers led the Qing Dynasty into a downward spiral. Though the economy was still in tact, the British brought opium into the markets and caused the Qing Dynasty to collapse.
  • Qianlong was the last strong ruler of the Qing ( 1736-1795)
  • the quality of leadership declined as weak rulers took the throne
  • the cost of maintaining borders along the northern and western parts of China were becoming more and more expensive
  • the economy began to weaken as the population rose rapidly
  • the White Lotus Rebellion (1796-1804) was caused due to the worsening economy
  • the Europeans could only trade with China in a small number of ports and only accepted small amounts of European goods
  • China was too strong to conquer- tea was their strongest commodity
  • China didn't trade much with the Europeans because they felt that they were superior and that the Middle Kingdom was the center of the universe away from all of the barbarians
  • The British found a way to break the Chinese into the Chinese markets: with opium- British began flooding China with opium grown in northeastern India
  • Opium became very popular in China- the British controlled 80% of the opium trade to China
  • the illegal trade outraged the Chinese government
  • their economy began to decline because peoples' addictions slowed productivity
  • Opium War 1839-1842- the Qing government tried to stop the spread of opium by arresting dealers, but this made an excuse to start a war- in the first battle the British won easily by establishing the Treaty of Nanking on the Chinese- the Chinese had to open 5 more ports to foreign trade, lower tariffs on British goods, and grant rights to areas in China where British traders lived- British law ruled those areas- China surrendered Hong Kong to Britain
  • new treaties legalized opium trade and opened more ports to foreign trade- powers were granted to the Portuguese, French, British, Americans, and Russians who set up economic concessions in Chinese territory- Japan, Germany, and Italy gained economic concessions as well


The borther of Jesus Christ, Hong Xiuquan led the Taiping Rebellion and got one third of China to follow his beliefs.
The borther of Jesus Christ, Hong Xiuquan led the Taiping Rebellion and got one third of China to follow his beliefs.


MI: Rebellion also played a big role in the decline of the Qing Dynasty, though some reform gave the empire light, they ultimately failed and the Republic of China was formed.
  • Taiping Rebellion 1850-1864- very costly and most devastating civil war in world history; claimed 20 to 30 million lives- second deadliest war next to WWII- Xiuquan started the uprising- wanted to become a government official but failed the civil service exam- out of shock he convinced himself that he was the brother of Jesus Christ and was set out to create supreme peace in the Kingdom- he organized an army- he gained followers with his resentment toward the high Qing taxes and oppressive rule- at the peak, Xiuquan ruled one third of China- by the 1860s the rebellion was beginning to retreat- Xiuquan committed suicide in 1864- the rebellion left China in ruins and the Qin government was thrown into chaos- the self strengthening movement, a reform movement, was attempted in the 1860s but didn't have any lasting effects
  • in 1878 Cixi began to rule China, until her death in 1908- strong leader who opposed modernization- Qing rule became more oppressive, she opposed all reform
  • Open Door Policy in 1898 allowed all nations to have equal access to Chinese markets
  • Boxer Rebellion- Chinese had built up much anger towards foreign influence and control- rebellion was made up of "boxers", martial arts experts- they attacked foreign residences and besieged foreign legations- the rebellion was put down by foreign troops, they forced the Qing government to pay a big financial penalty
  • Sun Yat-sen 1866-1925- united many opposition groups into the Revolutionary Alliance and promoted nationalism, democracy, and livelihood- he wanted to untie all Chinese under a democratic constitution
  • Nationalist Party was formed in 1912- but in 1949 Sun's successor was defeated and a communist government took power