Notes p666-669 (Beginnings of the liberation struggle in Africa)
MI: The struggle for liberation in Africa was supported by African Americans living in the states.
  • Marcus Garvey- African American political figure of the 1920s and 30s- had a major impact on emerging African nationalist leaders
  • W.E.B. Du Bois - African American political figure of the 1920s and 30s- had a major impact on emerging African nationalist leaders
  • pan- African- in the 1920s much effort was placed into the building of pan-African organizations by all Africa loyalties; African American and West Indian delegates led the development; delegates from the colonized areas in Africa had other challenges under colonial rulers
  • negritude- literary movement to stop racial stereotyping

p723 - p.727 (Liberation of Nonsettler Africa, The Struggle for the Settler Colonies, and White South Africa)
MI: Though revolts took place and European influence was brought down some, the new colonies/ states formed didn't start off so great.
  • Convention Peoples Party (CPP) -
  • Jomo Kenyatta-
  • Kenya African Union (KAU)-
  • Land Freedom Army
  • National Liberation Front (FLN)- mobilized large segments of Arab and Berber population in Algeria for a full scale revolt against French rule
  • Secret Army Organization (OAS)-
  • Afrikaner National Party- 1948 it was founded in the South African legislature, it devoted itself to winning complete independence from Britain and to establishing white dominance over the political, social, and economic life of South Africa
  • apartheid- rigid system of racial segregation- established by the Afrikaners after 1948 with the passage of thousands of laws; legislation reserved the best jobs for whites; black Africans didn't have the right to vote and weren't politically represented


p. 804 - p.806 (The Apartheid State and its Demise)
MI: The beginnings of theses new African nations were unstable and unjust due to lack of experience in formal governments.
  • homelands- designated areas for the main ethnolinguistic groups within the black African population; separated on a gender scale
  • African National Congress was named illegal and the leaders if the congress were shipped off to maximum security prisons, some were murdered
  • Afrikaner leaders pushed for reforms to dismantle the apartheid- it was seen as wrong and unfair to those being subjugated
  • in 1994 the African National Congress brought Nelson Mandela into power and became the first black president of South Africa
  • he proved to be one of the most skillful and respected leaders in the current world



Nation
Date
Colonial Power
Nature of Movement
Key Leader(s)
Success?
Algeria
1962
France
FLN organized revolt against French
Ahmed Ben Bella
Yes
Angola
1975
Portugal
Guerilla war and national movements develop
Alvaro Roberto,
Yes
Belgian Congo
1960
Belgium
It was too expensive to keep the state, corruption in the government
King Leopold II, Lumumba
Yes
Ghana
1957
Britain
Restrictions on social life and economic opportunity caused revolt
Nkrumah
Yes
Guinea
1958
France
Peaceful from France
Toure,
Yes
Kenya
1963
Britain
Secret Mau Mau Society launched campaigns against British
Thuku, Kenyatta, Mboya, Murumbi
Yes
Madagascar
1960
France
MDRM organized revolt against French
Tsiranana, de Gaulle,Andriamanjato
Yes
South Africa
1910
Britain
Anglo-Boer wars triggeres independence movements
Zulu, Milner, Smuts, Mandela, Kruger, Gandhi, Mbeki
Yes


In fairly recent history, African countries have become independent from their previous Western European overlords. African colonies were used as a way for empires to physically expand as well as exploit economically. Many colonies in Africa were used for raw materials and natural resources. European empires brought global trade to African states and increased the prosperity of their markets as well as putting many people to work, though slavery was a large issue in many of these colonies. Along with economic expansion, Europe brought strict governmental rule to Africa as well. After decades of being controlled, by all aspects, by European nations, African colonies began to wage revolutions against them in order to gain independence. Nationalism had been popular some years before it moved to Africa, but, the ideas were spread well enough to fight for independence. The people of the European African colonies were basically tired and fed up with dealing with strict, unjust governments. Nationalism led some countries like Algeria and Madagascar to start revolutions to remove European rule. And nationalism also led to some peaceful independence movements. For Belgium, the Belgian Congo was becoming increasingly expensive as the government was slowly becoming more and more corrupt. This ultimately led to the relatively peaceful independence for the colony. For Guinea, no war took place for them to gain independence from France, instead both nations felt that it would be best if they became their own nation. The key driving force for some national movements in Africa were due to strong leaders. In Algeria, Ahmed Ben Bella, a former soldier in WWII, created the FLN (National Liberation Front) in order to start a revolution. Eventually the nation became independent, after a war of course. Ben Bella soon became on of the first presidents of the new nation of Algeria. Strong leaders led their nations to independence. And very strong leaders kept their nations from falling into a corruptive new government. but this did happen. In some African colonies, new corrupt governments began to take shape, though stating that they were democratic governments. All African colonies were successful in generating independence from their European rulers, but not all of them were able to make their nations any more equal that they were before. Some were not successful in carrying on equal and just beliefs, but instead brought autocratic "democracies" in which a leader basically had all of the power, but was elected at some point.